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The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament Online

By Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner, translated and edited under the supervision of M. E. J. Richardson

The third edition of Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner’s Hebrew dictionary ‘The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament’ is widely acclaimed as the most up-to-date dictionary for the Old Testament and related literature in classical Hebrew and Aramaic and is now available online. The study edition has proven to be a valuable resource for scholars and students. Combining scholarly thoroughness with easy accessibility, the dictionary meets the needs of a wide range of users. The enormous advances that have taken place in the field of Semitic linguistics since the days of the older dictionaries of Classical Hebrew are well documented and assessed, as well as the often detailed discussions in modern Bible commentaries of words where the meaning is particularly difficult. Full text search and possibility to find conjugated verb forms in the context of their roots is particularly helpful to the new student. Specialist users will find here a wealth of bibliographical information on Old Testament exegesis.

Konzise und aktualisierte Ausgabe des Hebräischen und Aramäischen Lexikons zum Alten Testament Online

Walter Dietrich / Samuel Arnet (HG.)

The third edition of Hebräisches und Aramäisches Lexikon zum Alten Testament (HALAT) by Koehler & Baumgartner appeared in a series of fascicles between 1967 and 1995. It deals with the lexemes of the whole Hebrew Bible, and includes citations from extra-biblical sources and the ancient versions as well as much discussion of the secondary literature then available.
The Konzise und aktualisierte Ausgabe des Hebräischen und Aramäischen Lexikons (KAHAL) is based on HALAT but it focuses on the lexicographic treatment of the biblical lexemes. The etymological material has been revised to reflect the current status of studies in comparative Semitic philology. Proper names are all now transcribed but without any proposed etymologies.

Cuneiform Luvian Lexicon

H. Craig Melchert

This lexicon has a very modest aim: to furnish a provisional index, as exhaustive as possible, of all attested Cuneiform Luvian lexemes. It is intended to be complete for the CLuvian corpus as established by Frank Starke, Die keilschrift-luwischen Texte in Umschrift (StBoT 30), Wiesbaden: 1985 (with the addenda and corrigenda in StBoT 31 (1990) 592-607).

The starting point for this collection is naturally the seminal work of Emmanuel Laroche, Dictionnaire de la langue louvite, Paris: 1959. It should also be self-evident that this lexicon would not have been possible in its present form without the excellent new organization of the CLuvian corpus by Frank Starke cited above.

Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon

Hrach K. Martirosyan

As an Indo-European language, Armenian has been the subject of etymological research for over a hundred years. There are many valuable systematic handbooks, studies and surveys on comparative Armenian linguistics. Almost all of these works, with a few exceptions, mostly concentrate on Classical Armenian and touch the dialects only sporadically. Non-literary data taken from Armenian dialects have largely remained outside of the scope of Indo-European etymological considerations. This book provides an up-to-date description of the Indo-European lexical stock of Armenian with systematic inclusion of dialectal data. It incorporates the lexical, phonetic, and morphological material in the Armenian dialects into the etymological treatment of the Indo-European lexicon. In this respect it is completely new.

Etymological Dictionary of Greek

Robert Beekes (with the assistance of Lucien van Beek)

Greek is among the most intensely and widely studied languages known. Since the publication of the last etymological dictionary of Greek, both the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European, and our knowledge of the Greek substrate have led to numerous, often surprising new insights into the history and formation of the Greek vocabulary. This dictionary is a treasure trove covering 2000 years of Ancient Greek: from Mycenaean via Homer and the classical period to lexicographers, such as Hesychius (5th century A.D.) It consists of 7500 entries with thoroughly revised etymologies. Each entry gives clear information about the origin of the Greek word and its first date of attestation. It further provides all etymologically relevant variants, dialectal forms, derivatives, compounds, and bibliographical references. This dictionary is a truly indispensable tool for those in search of a deeper knowledge of the Greek vocabulary, its history and, therewith, a better understanding of the language.

Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon

Alwin Kloekhorst

Hittite is the oldest attested Indo-European language and therefore of paramount importance for comparative Indo-European linguistics. Although in the last few decades our knowledge of the synchronic and historical linguistics of Hittite has profoundly increased, these new insights have not been systematically applied to the whole Hittite material. This book fills this gap by, for the first time, providing an etymological dictionary of the entire Hittite lexicon of Indo-European origin in which all words are treated in a coherent way. Furthermore, it provides a thorough description of the synchronic phonological system of Hittite as well as a comprehensive study of the Hittite historical morphology and phonology. The result is a monumental handbook that will form an indispensable tool for Indo-Europeanists and Hittitologists alike.

Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb

Johnny Cheung

The present work gives a critical survey of all the verbs that may have existed in Proto-Iranian as deduced from the attested Iranian descendants and their archaic sister language, Sanskrit. This is accompanied by an analysis of the morphology and assessment of the provenance. The Iranian group within the Indo-European language family consists of languages that were and are still spoken in Western and Central Asia, among which Persian, Balochi, Kurdish, Pashto, Shughni and Ossetic are the best known today, and Avestan, Old and Middle Persian, Parthian, Bactrian, Khotanese, Sogdian and Choresmian in the past. This work aims to bridge the gap in knowledge that exists between Indo-Europeanists and scholars of Iranian languages with regard to each other's fields.

Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages

Michiel de Vaan

Latin is one of the major ancient Indo-European languages and one of the cornerstones of Indo-European studies. Since the last comprehensive etymological dictionary of Latin appeared in 1959, enormous progress has been made in the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European, and many etymologies have been revised. This new etymological dictionary covers the entire Latin lexicon of Indo-European origin. It consists of nearly 1900 entries, which altogether discuss about 8000 Latin lemmata. All words attested before Cicero are included, together with their first date of attestation in Latin. The dictionary also includes all the inherited words found in the other ancient Italic languages, such as Oscan, Umbrian and South Picene; thus, it also serves as an etymological dictionary of Italic.

Old Frisian Etymological Dictionary

Dirk Boutkan and Sjoerd Michiel Siebinga

The Old Frisian Etymological Dictionary is an indispensable research tool for the study of Old Frisian, Germanic languages, and Proto-Indo- European.

With this first etymological dictionary of Old Frisian based on the lexicon of Riustring 1 manuscript, Old Frisian becomes accessible to a wide circle of scholars of Germanic and Indo-European. The latest insights of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics have been systematically incorporated. The entries are provided with a meticulous analysis of Old Frisian dialectal forms, with Proto-Frisian reconstructions, and with a wealth of Germanic and Indo- European cognates.

Due to the lack of lexicographical tools, Old Frisian cognates are rarely included in current etymological dictionaries of Germanic and Indo-European, despite the fact that Old Frisian can often provide important clues for the reconstruction. At the same time, it is difficult for the students of Old Frisian to acquire knowledge of the linguistic prehistory of this language. The Old Frisian Etymological Dictionary is an indispensable research tool for the study of Old Frisian, Germanic languages, and Proto-Indo-European.

Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic

Ranko Matasović

This is the first etymological dictionary of Proto-Celtic to be published after a hundred years, synthesizing the work of several generations of Celtic scholars. It contains a reconstructed lexicon of Proto-Celtic with ca. 1500 entries. The principal lemmata are alphabetically arranged words reconstructed for Proto-Celtic. Each lemma contains the reflexes of the Proto-Celtic words in the individual Celtic languages, the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) roots from which they developed, as well as the cognate forms from other Indo-European languages. The focus is on the development of forms from PIE to Proto-Celtic, but histories of individual words are explained in detail, and each lemma is accompanied by an extensive bibliography. The introduction contains an overview of the phonological developments from PIE to Proto-Celtic, and the volume includes an appendix treating the probable loanwords from unknown non-IE substrates in Proto-Celtic.

Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic

Guus Kroonen

The Germanic languages, which include English, German, Dutch and Scandinavian, belong to the best-studied languages in the world, but the picture of their parent language, Proto-Germanic, continues to evolve. This new etymological dictionary offers a wealth of material collected from old and new Germanic sources, ranging from Gothic to Elfdalian, from Old English to the Swiss dialects, and incorporates several important advances in Proto-Germanic phonology, morphology and derivation. With its approximately 2,800 headwords and at least as many derivations, it covers the larger part of the Proto-Germanic vocabulary, and attempts to trace it back to its Proto-Indo-European foundations. The result is a landmark etymological study indispensable to Indo-Europeanists and Germanicists, as well as to the non-specialist.

Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Nostratic

Allan R. Bomhard

This book is a comprehensive comparison of Proto-Indo-European, in all its stages of development and in all its aspects, with various other language families of Northern Eurasia, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. It is an attempt to show that Proto-Indo-European is not genetically isolated but, rather, belongs to a larger linguistic grouping, namely, the Nostratic macrofamily. For the first time, all aspects of the putative proto-language are discussed in detail: phonology, morphology, vocabulary, syntax, and homelands. Copious references are given throughout to the relevant literature and the book ends with an English-Nostratic index. Also for the first time, a sizable amount of material has been included from Eskimo-Aleut and Chukchi-Kamchatkan. This book is, therefore, the most important contribution to Nostratic linguistics to appear to date.

Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon

Rick Derksen

This dictionary in the Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series systematically and exhaustively deals with the Slavic inherited lexicon. It is unique in combining recent insights from the field of comparative Indo-European linguistics with modern Balto-Slavic accentology. In addition, the author makes an explicit attempt at reconstructing part of the Balto-Slavic lexicon.

The entries of the dictionary are alphabetically arranged Proto-Slavic etyma. Each lemma consists of a number of fields which contain the evidence, reconstructions and notes. The introduction explains the contents and the significance of the individual fields. Here the reader can also find information on the various sources of the material. The volume concludes with an extensive bibliography of sources and secondary literature, and a word index.

Etymological Dictionary of Tocharian B

Douglas Q. Adams

The second edition of A Dictionary of Tocharian B (published by Rodopi, Amsterdam/New York, NY, 2013) includes substantially all Tocharian B words found in regularly published texts, as well as all those of the London and Paris collections published digitally (digital publication of the Paris collection is still incomplete), and a substantial number of the Berlin collection published digitally. The number of entries is more than twenty per cent greater than in the first edition. The overall approach is decidedly philological. All words except proper names are provided with example contexts. Each word is given in all its various attested morphological forms, in its variant spellings, and discussed semantically, syntactically (where appropriate), and etymologically. New to the second edition is the assignment, where possible, of the examples of the word’s use to their exact chronological period (Archaic, Early, Classical, Late/Colloquial). This dating provides the beginning of the study of the Tocharian B vocabulary on a historical basis.

Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus Online

J.F. Niermeyer and C. van de Kieft. Revised by J.W.J. Burgers

J. F. Niermeyer's Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus is a highly practical lexicon, providing researchers, teaching staff and students in the field of Medieval History with concise, essential information. This new online edition, still the “compendious lexicon for rapid information” envisaged by Niermeyer, recreates the second print edition (2002) on Brill’s Dictionary Platform , providing French, English and German translations for every entry of a Medieval Latin concept and searches on lemma and full text: searches can be refined by century of use. All entries are contextualized with relevant text passages. The Niermeyer Lexicon Minus has proved to be invaluable to medievalists for almost 50 years and is an indispensable working tool for academic libraries.

The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek

Franco Montanari, Genoa. English Edition edited by Madeleine Goh and Chad Schroeder, under the auspices of the Center for Hellenic Studies. Advisory Editors: Gregory Nagy, Harvard, and Leonard Muellner, Brandeis.

The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek is the long-awaited English translation of Franco Montanari’s Vocabolaria della Lingua Greca. With an established reputation as the most important modern dictionary for Ancient Greek, it brings together 140,000 headwords taken from the literature of the archaic period up to the 6th Century CE, and occasionally even beyond. Christian literature, papyri and inscriptions are covered well. The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek is an invaluable companion for the study of the Classics and Ancient Greek, for beginning students and advanced scholars alike.

Translated and edited under the auspices of the Center for Hellenic Studies in Washington, DC, The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek is based on the completely revised 3rd Italian edition published in 2013.

Dictionary of Renaissance Latin from Prose Sources

This Lexique de la prose latine de la Renaissance is the first dictionary of Renaissance Latin and continues on from the Dictionnaire latin-français of F. Gaffiot. However, it comprises 8500 words, more than 7000 of which are not mentioned by Gaffiot, while others are employed with different meanings.
It is based upon a reading of a very large number of texts by 150 authors from Western and Central Europe, including Budé, Calvin, Erasmus, Ficino, Lipsius, Luther, Melanchthon, More, Petrarch, Pica della Mirandola, Politian, Valla, Vives, and Zwingli. The compiler has paid particular attention to variety in the source texts, which cover literature, correspondence, history, law, philosophy, theology, and science. This work has been long awaited by scholars and students and will become a standard tool not only for latinists and neo-latinists, but also for all those historians, philosophers, theologians, historians of law, and intellectual historians working in the fields of Humanism, the Renaissance, the Reformation and Counter-Reformation.